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2014年中考英语冲刺训练:任务型阅读理解专项训练

 

新课程标准倡导任务型的教学模式,让学生在教师的指导下,通过感知、体验、实践,参与和合作等方式,实现任务的目标,感受成功,在学习过程中进行情感和策略调整,以形成积极的学习态度,促进语言实际运用能力的提高。这就要求教师依据课程的总体目标并结合教学内容,灵活地和有创造性地使用教材,设计贴近学生实际的教学活动,吸引和组织他们积极参与,并在此过程中培养发展学生用英语解决实际问题的能力和培养学生的创新精神。让学生学会用英语做事,培养学生的交际能力。任务型教学中包含的一个很重要的组成部分就是任务型阅读。
   那么到底怎样完成此类题目呢?
1.认真审题,读懂题意
由于题目要求形式多样,在同一篇阅读材料中会要求完成不同的任务,因此解题前要先明确任务,做到心中有数。
2.快速阅读,掌握大意
在做题时要快速扫视一下文章的大意,然后结合前面的题目的要求,大致明白所要完成的任务。
3.细读题目,完成任务
在明白题意和文章意思的基础上,仔细阅读后面的题目要求,在原文找出问题题干所包括的信息部分,这样就可以快速准确地抓住有效信息,确保答题的准确性。如果是根据英文释义写单词的题,则一定要确保所填的单词来源于原文,切不可脱离原文,随意发挥。
4.复读文章,核实任务
在初步完成所要求的任务以后,学生必须再仔细阅读所提供的短文,结合题意、文章和文后提供的任务信息、认真核实任务以保证答题正确。
5.注意读写结合
任务型阅读不仅考查学生阅读理解层面的能力,更加注重考查学生“写”的能力。若是写单词,则要注意拼写正确,词形、词性有无变化,是否需要大写;若所要完成的是短语或句子成分,则需谨慎对待,依据所给题干分析要完成的是什么句子成分,需用什么样的表达方式,不可简单草率地将文中信息直接挪用。
总之,任务型阅读理解不同于传统的阅读理解,它介于阅读理解与写作之间,教师应该适应新课改的要求,掌握任务型阅读理解的特点,加强学生任务型阅读能力的培养。

近年来考查任务型阅读常见的题型主要有以下几种:
一、根据短文意思,补充句子。           
 Mr. Scott worked in a middle school. He read a lot. He taught well and could answer all the questions his students asked. And they liked him very much. One Sunday morning, when he was dressing his little son, Jimmy, the boy suddenly asked, “May I ask you a question, Dad?” “Of course you can,” answered Mr. Scott. “Are you sure that you can answer it?” “Certainly.” “Well,” said Jimmy, “Are there any holes in your socks?” “Holes?” Mr. Scott said in surprise. “It’s impossible.” “Look at them carefully, or you’ll be wrong!” Mr. Scott took off his socks and looked at them carefully but didn’t find anything wrong.

  “No, there’s no hole in them,” said Mr. Scott. “I bought them only last week.” “How can you put your feet into them, then?” Little Jimmy said with a smile. At first Mr. Scott didn’t know what to say. After a while he began to laugh with a red face.

根据短文意思,将下列句子补充完整。每空一词。
 1.Mr. Scott was a _________ in a school.
 2.His son was very _______, so he couldn’t dress himself.
 3.Mr. Scott ______ to find if there were holes in his socks.
 4.In the end Mr. Scott _______that his son had played a joke on him.
 5.From Jimmy’s joke we can say that he was a _______ boy.

【解题思路点拨】这篇小短文的大意是:Mr. Scott是一名中学教师。一天,正当他给儿子穿衣服时,儿子Jimmy问他“你的袜子上有一个洞吗?”这个问题。Mr. Scott感到莫名其妙。他脱下自己上周刚买的新袜子,仔细地看了看,根本没有发现任何问题。令他没有想到的是,儿子微笑着对他说:“没有洞,那么你是怎么样把脚放进去的呢?”
1.teacher。由短文开头的两句话就可以得出答案。
2.young。从Mr. Scott给儿子穿衣服这件事上来看,可以判断出他的儿子年龄很小,还不会穿衣服。所以答案为young。注意不可误将little作为答案,因为这个词并不指年龄小。
3.tried/wanted。这个小题的答案源自于“Mr. Scott took off his socks and looked at them carefully but didn’t find anything wrong.”这句话之中。
4.understood/knew/learned/learnt。根据短文所述的内容,不难看出这是儿子给Mr. Scott开的一个玩笑。联系短文末尾的“After a while he began to laugh with a red face.”这句话,就可以得出答案。
5.clever/bright/naughty/lovely/ cute。从这个孩子说的“How can you put your feet into them, then?”这句话,可以看出Jimmy是非常聪明、可爱的。开父亲的玩笑,说明他很淘气。这由Jimmy 的两次问话“May I ask you a question, Dad?”和“Are you sure that you can answer it?”也可以看出来儿童活泼可爱的天性。答案只要符合这几层意思都是正确的。

二、根据文章完成表格
    World Animal Day is a day for anyone who loves animals.It falls on October 4 every year.The date is to remember an Italian man named St.Francis.He asked people to thank animals on October 4.
    World Animal Day was started in 1931 at a meeting of ecologists(生态学家) in Florence.Since then it has been widely celebrated in countries throughout the world.
    On this special day,people throughout the world hold special activities to encourage everybody to show their love to animals.They do something special to let people know the importance of animals in the world.People also hold activities to encourage people to think about how we should treat animals.
根据短文内容,完成表格。
    World Animal Day     A day for anyone who  1  animals.
     2  every year     To remember St.Francis.
    World Animal Day     Started  3  in Florence.
    People do  4      In order to show the importance of animals.
    People in the world     Think about how  5  animals.
答案解析:
1.loves  根据短文第一句的内容可知,本题填 loves。
2.October 4  根据短文第一段的内容可以确定时间是 October 4。
3.in 1931  根据短文第二段中的第一句话可知,开始于 1931 年。
4.something special  根据“They do something special to let people know the importance of animals in the world.”可确定答案是 something special。
5.to treat  根据短文最后一句话可知,答案是 to treat。

三、把句子还原到文章中
阅读短文,从方框内选择合适的答案补全短文(10分)
Birthdays are strange things. The more you have, the more you try and pretend they don't matter, and the more   __1__. I'm not really sure why they think so. It's true that you are getting older, but as     __2__, “Who isn't getting older every day?” The problem may be that a birthday reminds people of all the things    __3__, but have not. I certainly understand that feeling, though I think    __4__   that I most want to do—a kind of personal re¬ordering(重新排 序) of the to¬do list. What makes you depressed(郁闷的) on your birthday is that you realize your re¬ordered to¬do list is exactly the same as it was last year. That makes you feel    __5__, and not been anywhere. I have not had that experience this year. I look back at where I was last year and find things have changed since then.

 

 

 

答案解析:
1.C 【解析】由“and”可知,此处是与前面并列的成分,故C项最合适。
2.D 【解析】由后面“Who isn't getting older every day?”可知此处选D,意为“正如某人对我说的”。
3.A 【解析】由“but have not”可知此处表示与之相反的内容,故选A。
4.E 【解析】由后文“...a kind of personal re¬ordering of the to¬do list.”可推知此处选E。
5.B 【解析】由上句“...is exactly the same as it was last year.”可知此处选B,意为“那使你感觉你什么都没有做……”。

四、综合任务型阅读 阅读下面短文,根据文后要求答题。(10分)
①   In  _the _United_ States_people _sometimes_ go_ camping   _for_vacation. Instead of staying at modern hotels and restaurants,they live in the woods and do everything for themselves for a few days to relax.
When you are camping,you make all of your own food.It is rather like a large,many¬day picnic.Barbeques(烤肉架) are very common while camping.You can bring meat and vegetables to the camp.To make a fire,you can find or bring your own wood and light it with a lighter(打火机).
② Remember  to_ put_stones_around_ the_fire_so_that_it _won't _get_too_big_and_dangerous! When the fire is ready,you can cook food over it.Besides meat and vegetables,you can also cook marshmallows(果酱软糖) with the fire.
Children really like this activity at night.The whole family sit around the fire,eat marshmallows,and drink hot chocolate—especially when it is cold outside! Everyone can sing camping songs and dance together.
Camping is a fun activity for the family to do.
Vacation does not have to mean going to visit faraway places,it could be as simple as setting up a tent in a nearby forest!
1.Where do Americans go camping?
________________________________________________________________
【解析】由第一段第二句“...they live in the woods...”可知答案。
【答案】In the woods.
2.Why do they put stones around the fire?
_______________________________________________________
【解析】由第三段第一句可知。
【答案】To make sure the fire won't get too big and dangerous.
3.将画线部分①翻译成汉语。
______________________________________________________
【解析】go camping“野营”,vacation“假期”。
【答案】在美国,人们有时在假期去野营。
4.将画线部分②翻译成汉语。
_____________________________________________________
【解析】remember to do sth.“记得做某事”,so that“以便”。
【答案】记住在火的四周砌上石头,这样火就不会蔓延而带来危险。
5.给文章拟一个标题。
______________________________________________________
【解析】通读全文可知,本文主要介绍了在美国野营的相关情况。
【答案】Camping in the US
实战练习
(1)
    Cambridge(剑桥) is one of the top universities in the world,and it's a city as well.To the surprise of some visitors,there are no walls around the university.Classroom buildings,libraries and offices can be seen all over the city.Most of the members of the city are the students and teachers of thirty-one colleges(学院).It got its name "Cambridge" from the river called Cam and a bridge built over it.Before the university was founded 800 years ago,Cambridge was a developing town.It developed faster because of the opening of the railway and became a city in 1951.Now it has a population of more than one million.Many young students hope for the chance to study at Cambridge.Perhaps you'll be a member of Cambridge one day.
根据短文内容,完成下表。
    The  1  of some visitors     No walls around the university
    The origin(来源) of its name     River Cam and a bridge  2  it
    The time when Cambridge was  3      800 years ago
    The  4  why Cambridge developed faster     The opening of the railway
    The population of Cambridge now      5  than one million
答案详解:
1.surprise  根据“To the surprise of some visitors,there are no walls around the university.”可知,该题填 surprise。
2.over  根据短文中“It got its name "Cambridge" from the river called Cam and a bridge built over it.”可以确定,该空填 over。
3.founded  根据短文中“Before the university was founded 800 years ago”确定,答案是 founded。
4.reason  根据短文中“It developed faster because of the opening of the railway and became a city in 1951”可确定该题填 reason。
5.More  根据短文中“Now it has a population of more than one million.”可以确定答案是 More。
(2)
(2011•天津)阅读下面短文,根据短文内容完成表格。
An American named Crum invented potato chips in 1853,although that was not his intention(意图).He was a chef(厨师长)at a beautiful restaurant in Saratoga Springs,New York.A regular dish on the menu was fried(油炸的)potatoes,which was an idea that had started in France.At that time,French fried potatoes were cut into thick slices(片).
One day,a dinner guest at the restaurant sent back his fried potatoes to the chef because he did not like them
so thick.So Mr Crum cut the potatoes a little thinner and fried them.The guest did not like those either.That made Mr Crum angry,so he thought he would just show the man.He sliced the potatoes paper¬thin and fried them,thinking that the man would say nothing about it.However,to his surprise,the man loved the thin potatoes very much.Other guests tried them and also liked them.So,Mr Crum's potato chips were added to the menu.They were called Saratoga Chips.
   Finally,Mr Crum opened his own restaurant to sell his famous chips.Now potato chips are packaged(包装)and sold in stores.
Who invented __1__?
__2__ was an American chef at a restaurant.
A dinner guest __3__ his fried potatoes to the chef because they were so thick.
The chef was probably glad in the end because __4__.
Now potato chips are packaged and sold __5__.

【答案】
1.potato chips 【解析】由第一段第一句中“An American named Crum invented potato chips in 1853...”可知答案。
2.Mr Crum(Crum) 【解析】由第一段的第二句“He was a chef at a beautiful restaurant in Saratoga Springs,New York.”可知Crum是美国纽约一家餐馆的厨师长。
3.sent back 【解析】由第二段的第一句“One day,a dinner guest at the restaurant sent back his fried potatoes to the chef because he did not like them so thick.”可知答案。
4.he opened his own restaurant to sell chips 【解析】由最后一段的第一句可知,最后,Crum自己开饭店来卖他的炸薯片,这可能是令这位厨师长高兴的原因。
5.in stores 【解析】由文章的最后一句“Now potato chips are packaged and sold in stores.”可知答案。
(3)
中学生上网一直是备受关注的热点话题。某班就这一话题组织了一次主题班会。以下是几位同学的观点,请仔细阅读下面内容,完成信息记录卡。
(L=Li Hua;W=Wang Gang;Z=Zhang Jie)
L:Surfing the Internet is very exciting. We can do lots of things,such as playing games, listening to music,chatting with our friends and so on. I really enjoy it.
W:I like surfing the Internet,too. Because I can learn a lot from it. I can get the latest news all over the world. I also can find the information I need so that I can spend less time on my homework.
Z:It's hard to say. I agree that the Internet is
helpful to our study. But it's not right to spend too much time on the games. And some information on the Internet is bad for our mind. What's more,surfing too much does harm to our eyes. In a word, we should use the Internet in a right way.
Names Opinions
Li Hua ◇play games
◇listen to music
◇chat with 1.________
Wang Gang ◇get the latest news
◇get useful 2.________
◇do homework 3.________
Zhang Jie ◇be helpful to our study
◇don't spend too much time on the games
◇be bad for our mind and 4.________
◇use the Internet 5.________

1.our friends/ friends 【解析】李华举了三个例子来说明上网可做的事,即玩游戏、听音乐及和朋友聊天,故此处填(our)friends。
2.information 【解析】由王刚的观点可知,上网可以找到需要的资料,即有用的资料,故填information。
3.faster/quickly/more quickly/better/easily... 【解析】王刚认为上网能够找到需要的资料,所以花在家庭作业上的时间更少,即做家庭作业更快或更容易。
4.eyes 【解析】由张洁观点的倒数第二句可知是对眼睛有害,故填eyes。
5.in a right way/correctly/properly 【解析】最后一句,张洁总结要用正确的方法使用网络,所以填短语in a right way或副词correctly/properly。
(4)
阅读短文,根据短文内容,从短文后的五个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有一项为多余选项。
Kenny and Bobbi McCaughey live in Iowa.They have a big family.Mikayla is the oldest child in the family.She is six years old.The other children are Brandon,Joel,Kelsey, Kenny,Natalie,Alexis and Nathan.They are all five years old.Why are they all the same age?__1__.They are septuplets!
It is hard work to look after seven babies at the same time.__2__.In the beginning,many people helped them.
They helped to feed,clean,and dress the babies.Every week,the septuplets used about 170 diapers(尿布)!__3__.
    Now the children are older.The septuplets started school this year.But they go to school at home,like their big sister,Mikayla.When Mikayla was ready for school,Kenny and Bobbi decided to teach her at home.__4__.Now Bobbi is the teacher for all eight of her children.

 

 

 

【答案】
1.B 【解析】问句与“因为他们一起出生”为因果关系。
2.E 【解析】由上句“同时照顾七个孩子是很难的工作”与E项“但Kenny和Bobbi不是独自照顾”构成转折关系。
3.A 【解析】由上句“每周七胞胎用大约170块尿布”与“他们也喝大量牛奶”构成顺承关系,说明抚养七胞胎之辛苦。
4.C 【解析】由上句“Kenny和Bobbi决定在家中教她”知“去年,Bobbi是Mikayla的老师”。现在Bobbi成了她的八个孩子的老师了。
(5)

Giving directions in different places
If you ask people of different countries“Could you tell me the way to the post office?”,you will get different answers.
In Japan,people use landmarks(路标)instead of street names.For example,the Japanese will say to travelers,“Go straight down to the corner.1._____________ The post office is across from the bus stop.”
In Kansas,America,there are no towns or buildings within(在……之内)miles.So instead of landmarks,people will tell you directions and distance.For example,people will say,“Go north two miles(英里).2.__________________”
People in Greece sometimes do not even try to give directions.They will often say,“Follow me.” 3.____________________
 Sometimes if a person doesn't know the answer to your question,he or she,like a New Yorker,might say,“Sorry,I have no idea.”But in Yucatan,Mexico,no one answers
“ I don't know”.4.____________________ They usually give an answer,but often a wrong one.A visitor can often get lost in Yucatan!
    5.____________________You might not understand a person's words,but maybe you can understand his or her body language.He or she will usually point to the correct direction.Go on in that direction and you may find the post office!

 

 

 

【答案】
1.Turn left at the big hotel and go past a fruit market. 【解析】前文说日本人不用路名而是用路标给他人指引方向,故在指引方向时会用到周围的一些建筑。
2.Turn east,and then go another mile. 【解析】前文说在美国的堪萨斯人们将告诉你方位和距离,故在指引方向时会用到表示方向及距离的词。
3.Then he or she will take you through the streets of the city to the post office. 【解析】前文说希腊人有时甚至不告诉你方向,他们经常说“跟我来”,这便意味着希腊人会带你去你要去的地方。
4.People there think“I don't know.”is not polite. 【解析】上句句意为“但是在墨西哥的尤卡坦半岛,没人回答‘我不知道’”。由此便知“那里的人们认为回答‘不知道’是不礼貌的”。
5.But one thing will help you everywhere. 【解析】由下文“你或许听不懂一个人的话,但是或许你可以理解他/她的肢体语言”可知“在任何地方都有一种情况将帮助你”最合适。
阅读短文,根据短文内容,从短文后的五个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有一项为多余选项。
When his 18th birthday was coming, the young man began thinking about looking for a job.    61   . “But, most got no reply,” he said. “Maybe they were surprised about my primary school education.”
By chance, one of his friends was looking for someone, who could work as an egg porter(搬运工)in the supermarket. Facing lots of difficulties in getting a job, he said, “I’ll take it.”  62  . He did that for three months.
   Later, he heard that a newspaper was looking for a network technician(网络技术员), so he asked for it.  63  . He practiced his skill right in front of the computer, and showed them the web pages he had designed. He started to work the next day, and became the director in less than a year.
     64   . In January 2005, he started a magazine for children, with himself as the editor in chief(主编).
A. He likes his job very much
B. And now, the 23-year-old man is a boss
C. Then everyday he rode his bicycle to go to work
D. So he sent resumes(简历)to many companies
E. But they were also worried about his school education
答案解析:
61. D    62. C    63. E     64. B

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